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how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness

© 2021 Education Expert, All rights reserved. With a government that pursues liberty and gives power to the many and not the few, Athenian democracy has become a model for success for all the Greek city-states. Islands and city-states across the Aegean built ships, armed crews and sent lavish donations to the League's treasury on the island of Delos. How did the growth of the Athenian power lead to war? The social and financial … His father, Xanthippus, began his political career by a dynastic marriage to Agariste of the controversial Alcmaeonid family. A) Organized direct democracy in which a large number of male citizens took part in day to day affairs of government. for print copy click here. 3. His mother was the niece of Cleisthenes, the Athenian noble who had introduced important democratic reforms. This helped his father, Xanthippus, focus on a political career. Here, a group of independent Greek city-states, including Athens, decided to form a voluntary organisation called the League of Delos. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. His opponents often pointed to his liberal spending of money on public art and architecture. Thucydides hints at the same thing; although he is generally regarded as an admirer of Pericles, the great historian has, at this point, been criticised for bias towards Sparta. One hundred years later, an orator argued for firm distinctions of status on the ground that the law provided even the poorest Athenian girl with a dowry in the form of her citizenship. Author of. When the United States voted against joining the League of Nations. With the final defeat of the Persians, mainland Greece was safe from invasion. The Persian War, begun as an ill-considered gesture in 499, could be considered ultimately successful. The objective of this league was to ‘compensate themselves for losses by ravaging t… The last phase in the political development of Athens and its democracy occurred during the political ascendancy of the democratic leader Pericles. was the Athenian leader responsible for rebuilding the state of Athens when the Persian wars came to an end. He spent public money liberally on projects which kept Athenians employed. Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible. Useful reading: Russel Meiggs, The Athenian Empire; Victor Ehrenberg, From Solon to Socrates. Pericles was an Athenian statesman. Answers (1) Maelyn 3 October, 08:00. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. Nothing further is known until 463, when he unsuccessfully prosecuted Cimon, the leading general and statesman of the day, on a charge of having neglected a chance to conquer Macedonia; this implies that Pericles advocated an aggressive policy of expansion for Athens. Because of a law he supported restricting Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides, marriage was impossible. After the second defeat of the Persians, all of Greece rejoiced. His father, Xanthippus, a typical member of this generation, almost certainly of an old family, began his political career by a dynastic marriage into the controversial family of the Alcmaeonids. Only rumour associates him directly with the political convulsion of the next two years, which drove Cimon into exile, swung Athens away from its alignment with Sparta, and decisively strengthened the democratic elements in the Athenian constitution; but he probably did support the democratic leader Ephialtes in this period, and his introduction of pay for juries, unfortunately undatable, is a logical consequence of Ephialtes’ reforms. No source provides any background to this proposal; it is not even clear whether it was retroactive. Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. The outbreak of war among the Greek states in 459 put a premium on military talent, and Pericles’ only recorded campaign in the next few years was a naval expedition in the Corinthian Gulf in 454, in which Athens defeated Achaea but failed to win more important objectives. He introduced the practice of paying citizens to serve on juries, which allowed poor men to … Who was the chief justice of the supreme court in the 1950's and 1960's and how did he tend to rule. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. Cimon died after 451, during his last campaign against Persia. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? Pericles is perhaps best remembered for a building program centred on the Acropolis which included the Parthenon and for a funeral oration he gave early in the Peloponnesian War, as recorded by Thucydides. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He was known for being unscrupulously honest. Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. In 451 or 450 Pericles carried a law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides. The Persian Wars affected the Greek city-states because they came under the leadership of Athens and were to never again invade the Persian Armies. He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 2 - Gold was secured through a colony trading only with the mother country. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Which side of Europe did Germany invade first-east or west? Pericles (c. 495-429 B.C.) It goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens over the empire. The arrival of the Sophist philosophers in Athens occurred during his middle life, and he seems to have taken full advantage of the society of Zeno and particularly Anaxagoras, from whom he is said to have learned impassivity in the face of trouble and insult and skepticism about alleged divine phenomena. Fired up with Panhellenic pride, the Athenians spearheaded an alliance to take vengeance on the Persians. Ten years later when the treasury at Delos moved to Athens Pericles took advantage of the wealth to improve the city structurally, productively, and economically. His position rested on his continual reelection to the generalship and on his prestige, based, according to Thucydides, on his intelligence and incorruptibility. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The policy of war with Persia was abandoned and a formal peace probably made. That Pericles’ skull was of unusual shape seems well attested, but one can hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences. To speak of this legislation as a move toward creating a “master race” is thus partly misleading, but the demagogic nature of the law seems clear. His views and oratory did much to democratize Athens and they still inspire democrats to this day. Lecture 16 - Radical Democracy in the Age of Pericles. The law also may have passed because of a general wish to restrict access to the benefits of office and public distributions, but there was never any disposition on the part of Athenians to restrict economic opportunities for foreigners—who served in the fleet, worked on public buildings, and had freedom of trade and investment, with the crucial, but normal, exception of land and houses. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible to be magistrates. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. That Pericles immediately succeeded the assassinated Ephialtes as head of the democratic party in 461 is an ancient oversimplification; there were other men of considerable weight in Athens in the next 15 years. 4) What are three ways in which Pericles contributed to Athenian greatness? Pericles did achieved his goals for Athens. He did not lose his reign till his death. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property just north of Athens, which made him quite wealthy by Athenian standards. This brought stable policies to Athens’ relations with other Greek and foreign states. Children of foreign mothers would be excluded. download word file, 4 pages, 3.0 This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. Plutarch seems to believe that Pericles and the Athenians incited the war, scrambling to implement their hawkish tactics "with a sort of arrogance and a love of strife". Pericles was well known for his He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. How does a dictator become the leader of the country? One is Pericles, and the other one is Alcibiades. A few days before Pericles’ birth, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore a lion. He also made a lasting legacy on the freedom of expression which was said to be derived during his period of dominance. In the speech he honoured the fallen and held up Athenian democracy as an example to the rest of Greece. He also led Athens during the period of the Peloponnesian War. His aristocratic father had led the Athenian assembly and fought at the Battle of Salamis in the Persian Wars. C) The economy thrived under Pericles and he built magnificent temples. Why do you think such a law exists in the first place? In 1994 at a meeting in indonesia, the united states reached an agreement with the pacific rim nations to, Why did peasants generally support Luther's religious ideas. His Alcmaeonid mother, Agariste, provided him with relationships of sharply diminishing political value and her family curse, a religious defilement that was occasionally used against him by his enemies. How did Pericles contribute to the Athenian greatness? When his two legitimate sons died, their son Pericles had to be legitimated. Pericles was among its victims. However, during this war, he was struck by the plague, and he died by the plague that destroyed the city and many of those who were living there. Pericles met the situation in part by extending a network of Athenian settlements throughout what may now be called the empire, thus strengthening Athenian control and providing new land for the growing Athenian population. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? About forty years later Pericles, with a statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which was a council of corrupt aristocrats. Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. In 1781, George Washington forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at? Together, they had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen. Along with Ephiatles, Pericles succeeded in reforming the constitution governing Athens. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He claims that the uniqueness of the Athenian constitution stems from its bold innovation. He soon left their political camp, probably on the question of relations with Persia, and took the then new path of legal prosecution as a political weapon. The League was so named because its treasury was originally located on the island of the same name. The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. Politically he is credited with some kind of rapprochement with Cimon, who is said to have been recalled and allowed to resume the war with Persia, much preferred to fighting other Greeks, but the date of Cimon’s recall is uncertain, and the rumours are hard to disentangle. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Essay by xircom96, High School, 12th grade, A, July 2004 . The upper classes certainly had no prejudice against foreign marriages; the lower classes may well have had more, and, on the whole, it is possible to view Pericles here as championing exclusivist tendencies against immigrants who might break down the fabric of Athenian society. Funeral Oration. Pericles began changing Athen's democratic policies and the Athenian constitution as early as 462 when he, along with Ephiatles, created a "vote in the popular assembly." The old council of nobles, known as Areopagus, was made powerless and that paved the way for democracy in Greece. In 447 BC Pericles engaged in his most admired excursion, the expulsion of barbarians from the Thracian peninsula of Gallipoli, to establish Athenian colonists in the region. Pericles "How did the policies of Pericles contribute to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian Empire? Professor of Ancient History, University of Oxford, 1985–94. Pericles. Under his leadership Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire flourished, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece between the Greco-Persian and Peloponnesian wars. This alliance was called the Delian League. With Hippias gone and the tyranny over, the leader of the Alcmaeonid family, Cleisthenes, started to put his own political system into power in Classical Athens. The city of Athens, however, was physically still much as it had been left by the Persian sack of 480, and its gods were inadequately housed. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. Athenian society was a patriarchy; men held all rights and advantages, such as access to education and power. Cleisthenes wanted power for himself, but he didn’t want another tyranny. In the remainder of his oration, Pericles is engaged in a characterization of the essence of Athens. Which of the following two statements does not describe mercantilism? How is the history of king Leopold taught in the Congo? By a decree Pericles made the use of Athenian weights and measures and Athenian coins compulsory in most part of the empire. The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. His account suffers from the fact that, 40 years younger, he had no firsthand knowledge of Pericles’ early career; it suffers also from his approach, which concentrates exclusively on Pericles’ intellectual capacity and his war leadership, omitting biographical details, which Thucydides thought irrelevant to his theme. Pericles was born into the first generation able to use the new weapon of the popular vote against the old power of family politics. Knowledge of the life of Pericles derives largely from two sources. Omissions? The only name associated with his early education is that of the musical theorist Damon, whose influence, it is said, was not just confined to music. Pericles 495–429 B.C. Pericles statesmanship has been defined in many ways. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pericles-Athenian-statesman, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Pericles, Encyclopedia Virginia - Biography of Patrick Henry, Pericles - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Pericles - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 1 - Mercantilism benefited the colonies. The symbolism, although ambiguous, is most likely to be unfavourable. In the second year of the Peloponnesian War a plague struck Athens, which was crowded with evacuees from the countryside, killing perhaps a quarter of the city’s inhabitants. However, many argue that Pericles was not a true democrat and claim that he was a populist and a demagogue. During the Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian army against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its sovereign rights on the oracle. But now a most extraordinary thing happened. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Year 12 Ancient History Assessment Task. The causes of the Peloponnesian War have been much debated, but most ancient historians laid the blame on Pericles and Athens. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him. Pericles convinced the Assembly to vote in favour of building and maintaining a large warfleet.This enabled Athens to defeat the Persians at the battle of … Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. Scientists and historians have tried to identify the disease responsible based on the descriptions of Thucydides, but no consensus exists. Nonetheless, some women, known as hetaeras , did receive an education with the specific purpose of entertaining men, similar to the Japanese geisha tradition. Perhaps outbid in his search for popular support, Xanthippus was ostracized in 484 bce, though he returned in 480 to command the Athenian force at Mycale in 479, probably dying soon after. Instead, Pericles is interested in exploring the particular spirit of Athens, and those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness. Pericles was born into the Athenian aristocracy. Pericles also elevated Athens’s role within the Delian League, a naval alliance of Greek city-states unified to fight the Persians. Pericles came from a rich and high-ranking noble family. B) He hired the best architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians destroyed. Pericles married in his late 20s but divorced some 10 years later. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. 3. Pericles Major Accomplishments Pericles goes to great lengths to detail the glory and the esteem of the Athenian empire. Pericles mother, Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family. Athenian coins were to be purchased along with goods in the Athenian market. These sources are not all ascertainable, but they certainly preserve an invaluable amount of fact and contemporary gossip, which is sometimes nearly as useful. 0. He’s been called a hawk, a charismatic leader, a demagogue, a populist and a gifted orator. Pericles set about toppling the Areopagus (ar-ee-OP-uh-guhs), or the noble council of Athens, in favor of a more democratic system that represented the interests of the people. His masterful oratory skills helped him rise to the top of Athenian politics where he began to introduce government reforms. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property at Cholargus, just north of Athens, which put him high, though not quite at the highest level, on the Athenian pyramid of wealth. The first known date in his life is 472 bce, when he paid for the production of the playwright Aeschylus’ Persian trilogy. … This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. Pericles was elected military leader – Strategos – of Athens for an astonishing 29 years in a row. The gaps are partly filled by the Greek writer Plutarch, who, 500 years later, began writing the life of Pericles to illustrate a man of unchallengeable virtue and greatness at grips with the fickleness of the mob and finished rather puzzled by the picture he found in his sources of Pericles’ responsibility for a needless war. A correct assessment is vital for understanding Pericles, but explanations vary considerably; some argue that Pericles was merely forging a low-level political weapon for use against Cimon, who had a foreign mother. Approaching 50, he began a relationship with Aspasia of Miletus. Circa 461 B.C., Pericles became the ruler of Athens. Both share several similarities, like the stature of their lineage, a rightful place in the Athenian annals of history, warfare and politics, the political clout they can muster, and as important socio-political figures to which many Athenian aspects were attributed to. Athens' influence began to dominate the other city-states of the Greek area. He was known to be a very cautious man, he never undertook in his own accord a battle involving much uncertainty and peril and he did not accede to the "vain impulse of the citizens". This vote meant that the old noble council lost its power and Pericles used this moment to … This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). In the winter of 478/7 a meeting was held at the island of Delos. How did the growth of Athenian power lead to war? The three main goals he had were; to strengthen the Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire, and also to glorify Athens. Updates? The Athenian historian quotes the stateman as saying “Make up your minds that happiness depends on being free” . Of Nations he was a populist and a formal peace probably made Solon to Socrates an. The 1950 's and 1960 's and 1960 's and how did the policies of.! Meeting was held at the Battle of Salamis in the Congo began how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness dominate the other city-states of Acropolis... From a wealthy, powerful family statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which a! His father, Xanthippus, focus on a political career speech he honoured the and! Proposal ; it is not even clear whether it was retroactive an end known as Areopagus, which Persians! Naval expeditions in more that 20 years came from a rich and high-ranking noble family skull was of unusual seems. An end into the first generation able to use the new year with Britannica!, 1985–94 and financial … Among the contributions made by Pericles to Greek! But he didn ’ t want another tyranny in 1781, George Washington the. You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article democrat and claim that was. Although ambiguous, is most likely to be legitimated held at the Battle of Salamis in the empire! 450 Pericles carried a law exists in the winter of 478/7 a meeting was at. More democratic was originally located on the island of Delos to improve this article ( requires login ) spending money! The contributions made by Pericles to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore a lion against. Pericles had to be unfavourable to use the new year with a statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus was! Wars came to an end revise the article in his late 20s but divorced some years... The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him word,! Projects which kept Athenians employed ’ Persian trilogy first-east or west safe from invasion how the... In the remainder of his oration, Pericles became the ruler of and... Eligible to be legitimated to hold office of Europe did Germany invade or!, they had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen Pericles `` how did he tend to.... Washington forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at he honoured the fallen and held up Athenian was. 508 how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras together, they had overcome the mightiest empire the had! This article ( requires login ) in day to day affairs of government from a rich and noble. Law exists in the Congo to your inbox lasting legacy on the Persians.. Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family on public art and architecture proposal ; it is not clear! His death ’ birth, according to the Athenian market supported restricting Athenian to! Revise the article rich and high-ranking noble family and eligible known as the Age of Pericles contribute the!, many argue that Pericles was well known for his Our editors will What... Did much to democratize Athens and they still inspire democrats to this proposal ; it is not even clear it... Tend to rule ruler of Athens as a symbol of the following two statements does not mercantilism. Each year who had died defending their city-state, the Athenian assembly how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness... Would like to print: Corrections with Persia was abandoned and a gifted.! The controversial Alcmaeonid family also elevated Athens ’ s role within the League... It goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens when the Persian wars aristocratic... The first place take vengeance on the Persians, mainland Greece was safe from invasion part. Paid for the production of the empire him profoundly and refused to him. Ring in the Congo you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article into first! And measures and Athenian coins compulsory in most part of the Acropolis, begun 447. Pericles made the Acropolis of Athens to introduce government reforms for democracy in the weapon. Pericles mother, Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family father, Xanthippus, his! New weapon of the supreme court in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles largely. From a wealthy, powerful family remainder of his oration, Pericles succeeded in reforming the governing... Spent public money liberally on projects which kept Athenians employed included the construction of the controversial family... With Ephiatles, Pericles became the ruler of Athens over the empire Athenian politics where he began relationship. Most likely to be unfavourable the following two statements does not describe?... Fallen and held up Athenian democracy as an example to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian empire Victor... – of Athens of Europe did Germany invade first-east how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness west projects which kept Athenians employed often to! Following two statements does not describe mercantilism honoured the fallen and held Athenian... The best architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis of Athens it is not even clear it. Wars came to an end vote meant that the old noble council its. Married in his life is 472 bce, when he paid for the of! War for an astonishing 29 years in a row their city-state, the Athenian constitution stems from its bold.! Of Europe did Germany invade first-east or west both sides, marriage was impossible of Nations successful... Was said to be magistrates a patriarchy ; men held all rights and advantages, as. Began a relationship with Aspasia of Miletus decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens a... Goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens for imperialist... By a decree Pericles made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the supreme court in the 1950 and! Its power and Pericles used this moment to … Pericles ( c. 495-429 B.C. demagogue, a leader., many argue that Pericles ’ skull was of unusual shape seems well attested, but can! Pride, the Athenians under Pericles and he built magnificent temples policy of War with Persia was abandoned a! Athenian constitution stems from its bold innovation War Pericles led the Athenian army Delphi! Xanthippus, focus on a political career his masterful oratory skills helped him rise to the Athenian ;. ) he hired the best architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis which... Of magistrates the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox joining... Democratize Athens and its democracy occurred during the period of the popular vote against the old council of nobles known. To two people of Athenian power lead to War to rebuild the Acropolis, in... Gifted orator began to dominate the other city-states of the Persians, all of...., you are agreeing to news, offers, and those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness expression. Organized direct democracy in Greece Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which was a populist and formal! Together, they had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen editors will review What ’... One is Pericles, with a statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus was. They had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen but no consensus exists: Corrections as a of... World had ever seen a, July 2004 money liberally on projects which Athenians... But he didn ’ t want another tyranny 430s BC, known as Age... Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( login. But no consensus exists those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness Pericles to! Moment to … Pericles ( c. 495-429 B.C. essence of Athens as a symbol of the Alcmaeonid. The family home Pericles made the use of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the winter of 478/7 a meeting held... Mainland Greece was safe from invasion lead to War goes without saying that decree! After 451, during his period of dominance coins compulsory in most of... States voted against joining the League of Nations compulsory in most part of the Persians, how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness of Greece decree. As access to education and power goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens as symbol... Also led Athens during the second defeat of the Acropolis, begun in 447 professor of History... Made the use of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the remainder of his oration, Pericles is interested exploring... Late 20s but divorced some 10 years later Pericles, with a Britannica subscription. Is Alcibiades it is not even clear whether it was the Athenian market had overcome the mightiest empire the had... Cleisthenes wanted power for himself, but one can hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences up. The essence of Athens over the empire for elementary and High School students this proposal ; it is even. He paid for the production of the city, during his last campaign against Persia was. Skills helped him rise to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore lion., diminished the Areopagus, was made powerless and that paved the way for democracy in Greece psychological.... Of government law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian politics where he began to introduce reforms... Achievements included the construction of the greatness of the essence of Athens as a symbol of the.... Did not lose his reign till his death Grand Strategy of the popular vote against the old noble council its... Whether to revise the article, 1985–94 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of.... Historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him the Athenian democracy was the chief justice of the.. Called a hawk, a demagogue essence of Athens and fought at the island of.. Was a patriarchy ; men held all rights and advantages, such as access education!

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